Copyright © 2013, 2015 by Douglas Dailey
Last Modified: Oct 19, 2015
“Damn it, Jim, I’m a doctor... not a statistician!”
- Bones, Starship Enterprise
The importance of diet is re-emphasized in the June issue of Brain Res Bull . Diabetic encephalopathy is on the rise and there is
no drug treatment. Luteolin is a flavonoid occurring in a variety of plant foods, fruits and vegetables. The authors conclude,
“supplementation of luteolin might be a potential therapeutic strategy for the treatment and/or prevention of diabetic
Luteolin reverses ketamine anesthesia , inhibits skin cancer , and may have a beneficial effect on multiple sclerosis .
Recognition and control of cerebral inflammation may be a key to enabling effective neuroplasticity, such as that stimulated by the
enriched environment of neurofeedback. .
The cumulative effects of stress on memory can be discomforting. Theanine, an amino acid abundant in green tea, has recently
been found to preserve hippocampal neuroplasticity and retention memory in rats exposed to stress . This is another important
addition to the already compelling evidence for the benefits of traditional foods and beverages, in this case green tea. Theanine has
an interesting effect on cognition, the the EEG alpha-band oscillatory activity and attention task performance .
May 21, 2013
Question: Why do TAG Sync screens use two reward frequencies at the same time?
Answer: Not only are two reward frequencies used at each set of sites, but the exact frequencies used vary with location
and time. The particular frequencies chosen are those found to increase long distance phase synchrony. The result is
observable increase in frontal TAG phase resets and, usually, reduction of intra-subject variability. A z-score module is
included with the Infiniti version of TAG Sync so that you can observe the inverse relationship between increased global
synchronization and reduced intra-subject variability (i.e., reduced z-score excursion).
Rizzuto et al  showed that each area of cortex organizes its theta-alpha phase resets with a unique local set of theta and
alpha frequencies for peak power in their bands. Tuning the cortex for phase resets is a lot like tuning a drum head. The
ability of global resonance depends upon the tuning of the individual tethers.
Maturation is not just about aging and hardening but it is about evolution of the cortical and behavioral flexibility required for
individual and social growth, integrity and synchrony.
Human neural network development appears to aim especially toward global long distance synchrony, especially midline.
The most reliable correlates may be zero-lag synchronization [2-9]. The goal is the smooth control of phase synchronization
and phase resets over a wide range of space and time.
As an analogy, consider that the oiling of the brakes is not so that they be engaged fully all the time, but that they might be
used as efficiently and effectively as possible.
For example - the goal of HRV training is seldom to be able to be at 0.1 Hz (= 6 per minute) cardio-respiratory resonance for
prolonged periods, even though this favors epigenetic up-regulation as does practice of another synchronized state - the
theta alpha synchrony of mindfulness meditation. Phase regulation of cardio-respiratory synchrony (HRV) at 0.1 Hz is
correlated to fine control of theta and alpha EEG synchrony .
A current article, Michels et al (2013) in PLoS ONE , nicely explains an important aspect of why global broadband
synchronization training (such as TAG Sync) can so suddenly alter neurocognitive functioning. (Link to free full text article is
During the following discussion of zero time lag synchronization, please recall that TAG Sync is designed to feedback timing
signals to the brain based on the amounts of zero-lag synchrony between two electrodes at two different reward frequency
bands. TAG Sync adjusts feedback parameters in order to support observable phase resets and especially those involving
frontal gamma. This approach has generated some interesting observations since its introduction in 2009.
The ability of individual cortical areas to function smoothly includes the graded ability of local theta & alpha frequencies to
shift and generate phase resets and salient updates when appropriate. Every area has unique theta and alpha
synchronization frequencies that are easily monitored during neurofeedback. When longer distance areas need to
communicate they open a 3rd set of theta and alpha frequencies that are shared between the two regions. This is facilitated
through choice of reward frequencies during NFB. This is a prerequisite for two cortical areas to coordinate the "talk" time
that is made possible during the opening of synchronous communication. According to Pocket and Freeman, global broad
band synchrony is a hallmark of consciousness. All this behavior (and more) is characteristic of fractal information transfer
over self-similar small world networks. That is clearly a topic for later.
1 - the local low frequency powers, such as theta, are greater than adults,
2 - the local and global synchronization abilities are immature, delayed, distorted or damaged,
3 - the default mode network is incomplete and prone to disassemble during chronic predator stress, or as a result of long
term and intergenerational epigenetically programmed sickness behavior.
4 - Long distance synchrony of theta is more important for task accuracy than is local or global theta amplitude.
The ability of each area of cortex to self-regulate and generate local theta & alpha synchrony channels, develops before long
distance anterior-to posterior networks can foster the cooperation of local networks into global synchronization. Long
distance maturation is frequently disrupted.
Global theta synchronization is a more important indicator of accuracy in working memory tasks than is theta amplitude.
Global theta-alpha synchronization, when mature, enables global broadband synchronization and increased power and rate
of phase resets, including those associated with relatively large increases in frontal gamma synchrony and behavioral
This (all the above) is one reason we treat two reward frequencies at once in TAG Sync neurofeedback. There are other
more interesting and more fundamental reasons, such as the inherent coupling of low frequency phase to high frequency
amplitude that characterizes living systems with 1/f power laws that organize fractally. Further relationships between
frequencies in EEG can be found by investigating cross-frequency coupling.
If the value of self-analysis, a mirror, and feedback all reside in the fidelity of the reflection to the self, then we might ask how
best could the EEG data be fed back to the brain in order that the brain recognizes its enduring self and enduring self-
similarity. Phase amplitude coupling between two frequencies is informed by past reverberations in the EEG as well as
independent potential trajectories. It is my observation that providing feedback on at least two of the cross-correlated
frequencies enables the brain to more meaningfully explore the salience of its own self-regulation.
How can we embed a more complete and faithful image of self and variability of the self into the stream of feedback we
provide through the brain-computer-brain interface?
More information at pubmed.gov
Cross-correlation in the EEG
Phase-amplitude coupling in the EEG
 Rizzuto DS, et al (2003) - Reset of human neocortical oscillations during a working memory task. Proc Nat Acad Sci, June
24, 2003, Vol 100, No 13 pp 7931-7936. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12792019
 Fischer I, et al (2006) - Zero-lag long-range synchronization via dynamical relaying. Phys Rev Lett 97: 123902.
 Gollo LL, et al (2011) - Theta band zero-lag long-range cortical synchronization via hippocampal dynamical relaying. PLoS
One, Mar 8;6(3) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21408082
 Gollo LL, et al (2010) - Dynamic control for synchronization of separated cortical areas through thalamic relay.
Neuroimage 52: 947–955. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19958835
 Jann K, et al (2009) - BOLD correlates of EEG alpha phase-locking and the fMRI default mode network. Neuroimage 45:
 Roelfsema PR, et al (1997) - Visuomotor integration is associated with zero time-lag synchronization among cortical
areas. Nature 385: 157–161. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8990118
 Uhlhaas PJ, et al (2009) - Neural synchrony in cortical networks: history, concept and current status. Front Integr Neurosci
3: 17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19668703
Veira MS (201) - Properties of zero-lag long-range synchronization via dynamical relaying. Chaos Mar;20(1):013131.
 Vicente R, et al (2008) - Dynamical relaying can yield zero time lag neuronal synchrony despite long conduction delays.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105: 17157–17162. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18957544
 Koenig T, et al(2005) - Brain connectivity at different time-scales measured with EEG. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B (2005) 360,
 Takahashi T, et al (2005) - Changes in EEG and autonomic nervous activity during meditation and their association with
personality traits. International Journal of Psychophysiology 55 (2005) 199– 207.
 Michels L, et al (2013) - Developmental changes of BOLD signal correlations with global human EEG power and
synchronization during working memory. PLoS ONE July, Vol 7, issue 7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22792176
 Liu Y, et al (2013) - Luteolin attenuates diabetes-associated cognitive
decline in rats. Brain Res Bull. 2013 May;94:23-9
 Yu MC, et al (2010) - Luteolin, a non-selective competitive inhibitor of
phosphodiesterases 1-5, displaced [3H]-rolipram from high-affinity rolipram
binding sites and reversed xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia. Eur J
Pharmacol. 2010 Feb 10;627(1-3):269-75.
 Byun S, et al (2010) - Luteolin inhibits protein kinase C(epsilon) and c-Src
activities and UVB-induced skin cancer. Cancer Res. 2010 Mar 15;70(6):2415-
 Theoharides TC (2009) - Luteolin as a therapeutic option for multiple
sclerosis. J Neuroinflammation. 2009 Oct 13;6:29.
 Dailey D (2010) - A Theory of Synaptic Recidivicism. Published privately,
http://www.growing.com/tag/docs/Dailey D (2010) - A theory of synaptic
 Tamano H, et al (2013) - Preventive effect of theanine intake on stress-
induced impairments of hippocamapal long-term potentiation and recognition
memory. Brain Res Bull. 2013 Feb 28;95C:1-6.
 Kelly SP, et al (2008) - L-Theanine and Caffeine in Combination Affect
Human Cognition as Evidenced by Oscillatory alpha-Band Activity and Attention
Task Performance. J. Nutr. August 2008 vol. 138 no. 8 1572S-1577S.
Here are some useful abbreviations for the next few posts:
Default Mode Network, more active when not on task, involved with theory of mind (self & others), self-
reference, mind wandering, transferring implicit memory into explicit memory,.
Brain-computer-brain interface. The computer and therapist function as accessory cortex to the trainee.
Electroencephalography - Graphing the Electrical signals of the Encephalon (Brain)
Global Broad-Band Synchronization
Hertz - The standard unit of frequency (f). It means "1 cycle per second".
Neurofeedback - Allowing the brain access to salient summary data about its electro-physiology (neuro-
cognitive resources) so that it can adaptively equilibrate.
QEEG Quantitative analyses of the collected time series recorded from each electrode. By "quantitative" I mean an
analysis by computer rather than analysis by human neural network via eyeball.
Theta-Alpha-Gamma Synchrony protocol
Technology-Assisted Self-Regulation / Technology-Assisted Self-Realization
Sensorimotor rhythm - A low-beta (12-15 Hz) energy found over the sensory-motor cortex during calm abiding.
I have had several requests to write down some of the material and organizational methods I use to understand
technology-assisted self-regulation. I have shared my ideas with some other NFB providers and we feel there is a
need for a wider discussion. You are invited to join the TAG Sync discussion group.
1 - EEG is a glimpse of fractal activity over a small world network
2 - NFB is a form of neuromodulation of the EEG. It involves a brain-computer-brain (BCBI) interface. It may be guided
by QEEG, by empirically derived protocol, or by theoretical goals.
3 - The theoretical goals in TAG Sync include:
Global broad band synchronization (GBBS) abilities
Adequate phase reset formation with world updating
Enhanced adaptive error correction
Maturation and evolution of network functioning
A more robust neuro-cognitive toolkit
Epigenetic down-regulation of sickness behavior
Reduced intra-subject variability
Enhanced P300 and novelty detection
In our field of EEG conditioning there is a notable increase in the number of articles written concerning the implications
of fractal information management over small world networks. There are several implications regarding the self-
similarity of the EEG and the self-similarity of the neurocognitive toolkit of the self.
“Theory is never true or false - it is simply useful or not useful.”
Please consider once again the list of theoretical goals.
They are made possible with a healthy fractal EEG over a competent small world network. By “healthy fractal EEG” I
mean an adaptive, error-correcting, self-similar phase-amplitude coupling, self-similar variability, etc. The EEG
contains echoes of past history as well as coalescing future trajectories.
TAG Sync starts in the most accessible part of the spectrum by monitoring phase-amplitude coupling (phase of reward
1, amplitude of reward 2) and tuning for phase resets based on client response. Typically this starts on the mid-line at
Fz and Pz near the anterior and posterior poles of the resting state and salience networks. Neurofeedback (as a form
of enriched secure environment) enhances neuroplasticity. The most fundamental changes in neuroplasticity are mid-
line-based and include immune involvement.
I have been developing this approach in an integrative environment since 2009. In the last 2 years 4 other practitioners
have had extensive experience with it.
The immediate goal will to be organize the supportive literature here while we carry on discussions and practice.
Khan S, et al (2013) - Local and long-range functional connectivity is reduced in concert in autism spectrum
disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 19;110(8):3107-12.
Wright B, et al (2012) - Gamma activation in young people with autism spectrum disorders and typically-
developing controls when viewing emotions on faces. PLoS One. 2012;7(7):e41326.
Thatcher RW, et al (2009) - Autism and EEG phase reset - Deficient GABA mediated inhibition in thalamo-
cortical circuits. Developmental Neuropsychology, 34(6), 780-800.