Copyright © 2013, 2015 by Douglas Dailey
Last Modified: Oct 19, 2015
“Damn it, Jim, I’m a doctor... not a statistician!”
- Bones, Starship Enterprise
For our newcomers I want to remind them that here we are discussing a particular
model that may explain or suggest certain neurofeedback phenomena. In most
cases the suggested protocols involve training cross-frequency coupling (e.g.,
theta alpha and gamma) in the EEG in order to augment phase resets, maturation
of connectivity, self regulation, tranquility and insight. Some interesting recent
studies support the model (described elsewhere).
As described elsewhere, part of my model involves emulating the EEG pattern
found in advanced meditators when they are in a state of fully awake non-
narrative awareness. According to this model, which draws on Buddhist
psychology, this intermediate EEG state between two thoughts should also
characterize near death experiences .
On Aug 14, 2013 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Borjigin et
al describe near death experiences (NDEs) :
"By presenting evidence of highly organized brain activity and
neurophysiologic features consistent with conscious processing at near-
death, we now provide a scientific framework to begin to explain the
highly lucid and greater-than-real mental experiences reported by near-
That "organized brain activity" at death was shown to be primarily anterior to
posterior theta-alpha-gamma synchrony at approximately the bands used in TAG
sync training. Perhaps either new, incipient, or forgotten NDEs experiences play a
role in some growing pains experienced during neurofeedback.
 Borjigin J, et al (2013) - Surge of neurophysiological coherence and
connectivity in the dying brain. Proc Nat Acad Sci, Aug 14, 2013.
Fronto-Parietal Networks in TAG Sync training:
Since 2010 TAG Sync training has focused on the midline (Fpz, Fz, Pz & Oz) and
the right and left fronto-parietal networks. Cole et al 2013  explain the incredible
versatility of the FPNs and describe their activation in novel and complex tasks.
This type of task activation has not been incorporated into EEG databases, so it
may need to be assessed during neurofeedback as the salience networks
feedback information on the outcome of the FPN attempts to solve novel problems
of state regulation.
 Cole MW, et al (2013) - Multi-task connectivity reveals flexible hubs for
adaptive task control. Nature Neuroscience (In Press)
Dysmaturation of the default mode network in autism:
Washington et al earlier this year in Human Brain Mapping  described autism as
a "dysmaturation of the default mode network", and stated "the window for
effectively treating ASD could be wider than previously thought." Children who
develop typically (TD) show one synchronized DMN component. In ASD there are
three poorly connected network components.
If you look at figure 2 in Washington you will see that the regions of the brain he
found under-connected due to "dysmaturation" are associated with all of the
electrode locations we used in the early autism treatments in 2010. We focused on
theta, alpha and gamma timing (synchrony). Earlier this year Khan in the
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences  measured the "coupling
between the phase of alpha oscillations and the amplitude of gamma oscillations"
and suggested that "failure to entrain neuronal assemblies fully both within and
across cortical regions may be characteristic of ASD." We were training exactly
this coupling (phase of alpha and amplitude of gamma) during the time we were
teaching self-regulation of DMN connectivity. Your attention to issues of
neuroplasticity and neuroprotection, attachment, etc., have all played essential
roles in management.
 Washington SD, et al (2013) - Dysmaturation of the Default Mode
Network in Autism. Human Brain Mapping.
 Khan S, et al (2013) - Local and long-range functional connectivity is
reduced in concert in autism spectrum disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.
2013 Feb 19;110(8):3107-12.
Cross-Frequency Coupling and TAG Sync:
It was exiting to read in Jirsa's  recent article "Cross-frequency coupling in real
and virtual brain networks" that some of our findings, such as delta-alpha cross-
frequency coupling between left anterior and right posterior are described. This
article is an excellent introduction to CFC and its many potential applications in
neurofeedback. It is best read with Breakspear 2005 , which gives a theoretical
base for explaining how coupling theta and SMR frequencies in neurofeedback led
to infra-low frequency changes in the BOLD default mode network operations .
Lee et al recently correlated increased right parasaggital CFC (delta, theta and
gamma) with reduced risk taking and OCD . Arns points out cross-frequency
coupling between diurnal phase of melatonin cycle and sleep cycle, slow cortical
potentials, and EEG spindling .
 Jirsa V, et al (2013) - Cross-frequency coupling in real and virtual brain
networks. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 03 July.
 Breakspear M, et al (2005) - Dynamics of a neural system with a
multiscale architecture, Philosophical Trans Royal Soc Britain 360, 1051-
 Russell-Chapin L, et al (2013) - The effects of neurofeedback in the
default mode network : Pilot study results of medicated children with ADHD.
Journal of Neurotherapy, 17:35-42. FREE FULL-TEXT.
 Lee J, et al (2013) - Correlation of risk-taking propensity with cross-
frequency phase–amplitude coupling in the resting EEG. Clinical
 Arns M, et al (2013) - Neurofeedback in ADHD and insomnia - Vigilance
stabilization through sleep spindles and circadian networks. Neurosci
Frontal Midline Theta:
FM theta training has been a component of this training since the first alpha-theta
synchrony module in 2009. Want et al 2013  show its ability to improve
memory in the elderly and executive function in younger clients.
 Wang J-R, et al (2013) - Neurofeedback training improves attention
and working memory performance. Clinical Neurophysiology, in press,
accepted 31 May 2013.
Brain-Computer-Brain Interface / The synchronous hyperbrain network:
A tenant of the TAG Sync model holds that neurofeedback involves a brain-
computer-brain interface. This has some of the idea of Allan Schore’s that the right
cortex of the mother functions as an accessory cortex of that of the infant. These
life events, and attachment issues in general, may interfere later with “hyperbrain”
networks between individuals. The EEG may be more comprehensively seen
when understood that it represents fractal information flow over embedded small
world networks. The recent article by Sanger, et al, examine synchronous EEG
events in the coordinated goal of shared musical exploration. It is my belief that
the model we use for training in neurofeedback should not be based solely on
training away differences in the spontaneous resting electroencephalographs of
clients and mathematically average subjects.
The TAG model emphasizes the model of an optimal adaptive brain which
generates insight. It appears that this is only possible for the human brain when its
coarse, medium and fine features express a unitary evolutionary goal. Breakspear
et al 2005 and Varela (2001) were strong influences on this model.
 Sänger J, et al (2013) - Directionality in hyperbrain networks
discriminates between leaders and followers in guitar duets. Frontiers in
Human Neuroscience, Vol 7, Art 234, June.
 Breakspear M, et al (2005) - Dynamics of a neural system with a multi-
scale architecture. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, May
29:360(1457):1051-74. FREE FULL-TEXT.
 Varela F (2001) - The brainweb - Phase Synchronization and large-
scale integration. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol 2, April 2001, p 229
The Theoretical Interpretation of Electroencephalography by Gerald Ulrich,
This long awaited book  will have a great impact on those who interpret EEG.
With excellent EEG charts and several cascading spectral displays (such as we
observe during neurofeedback) Ulrich shows the importance of several patterns of
vigilance, subvigilance, and dissolution of the finely tuned EEG into several
categories of dysmaturation. These state changes take place sometimes in the
matter of seconds and are lost in the color brain maps which average the states
over time and often ignore their existence in the raw EEG.
Ulrich is able to provide a framework for the majority of findings in routine
spontaneous resting state EEG. During neurofeedback these states are best seen
on the cascading spectral display, where synchronized activity at one frequency
can frequently be seen to split into two frequencies, or to alternate with activity in
other frequencies. TAG Sync notes such patterns such as synchronized alpha
being interrupted by periods of theta and beta activity and trains phase
synchronization at the relevant frequencies in order to promote self-regulation.
The ideal outcome is often the production of more frequent and larger phase
resets accompanied by insight and behavioral change.
 Ulrich G (2013) - The Theoretical Interpretation of
Electroencephalography (EEG). BMED Press, Corpus Christi, Texas.
TAG Sync screens available:
The single and dual channel TAG Sync screens, designs and manuals are now
available at http://www.mindsupplies.com.
Best wishes to everyone,
Aug 28, 2013
Lucid Near Death Experiences and Neurofeedback
Fronto-Parietal Networks in TAG Sync Training
Dysmaturation of the Default Mode Network in Autism
Cross-Frequency Coupling and TAG Sync
Frontal Midline Theta Neurofeedback
Brain-Computer-Brain Interface / The Synchronous Hyperbrain Network
The Theoretical Interpretation of Electroencephalography by Gerald Ulrich,
TAG Sync screens and manuals now available at mindsupplies.com.