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Copyright © 2013, 2015 by Douglas Dailey                                   Last Modified: Oct 19, 2015
“Damn it, Jim, I’m a doctor... not a statistician!” - Bones, Starship Enterprise
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For our newcomers I want to remind them that here we are discussing a particular model that may explain or suggest certain neurofeedback phenomena. In most cases the suggested protocols involve training cross-frequency coupling (e.g., theta alpha and gamma) in the EEG in order to augment phase resets, maturation of connectivity, self regulation, tranquility and insight. Some interesting recent studies support the model (described elsewhere). Near-death experiences:  As described elsewhere, part of my model involves emulating the EEG pattern found in advanced meditators when they are in a state of fully awake non-narrative awareness. According to this model, which draws on Buddhist psychology,  this intermediate EEG state between two thoughts should also characterize near death experiences . On Aug 14, 2013 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Borjigin et al describe near death experiences (NDEs) [1]: "By presenting evidence of highly organized brain activity and neurophysiologic features consistent with conscious processing at near-death, we now provide a scientific framework to begin to explain the highly lucid and greater-than-real mental experiences reported by near-death survivors." That "organized brain activity" at death was shown to be primarily anterior to posterior theta-alpha-gamma synchrony at approximately the bands used in TAG sync training. Perhaps either new, incipient, or forgotten NDEs experiences play a role in some growing pains experienced during neurofeedback. [1] Borjigin J, et al (2013) - Surge of neurophysiological coherence and connectivity in the dying brain. Proc Nat Acad Sci, Aug 14, 2013.  Fronto-Parietal Networks in TAG Sync training: Since 2010 TAG Sync training has focused on the midline (Fpz, Fz, Pz & Oz) and the right and left fronto-parietal networks. Cole et al 2013 [2] explain the incredible versatility of the FPNs and describe their activation in novel and complex tasks. This type of task activation has not been incorporated into EEG databases, so it may need to be assessed during neurofeedback as the salience networks feedback information on the outcome of the FPN attempts to solve novel problems of state regulation. [2] Cole MW, et al (2013) - Multi-task connectivity reveals flexible hubs for adaptive task control. Nature Neuroscience (In Press) Dysmaturation of the default mode network in autism: Washington et al earlier this year in Human Brain Mapping [3] described autism as a "dysmaturation of the default mode network", and stated "the window for effectively treating ASD could be wider than previously thought." Children who develop typically (TD) show one synchronized DMN component. In ASD there are three poorly connected network components. If you look at figure 2 in Washington you will see that the regions of the brain he found under-connected due to "dysmaturation" are associated with all of the electrode locations we used in the early autism treatments in 2010. We focused on theta, alpha and gamma timing (synchrony). Earlier this year Khan in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [4] measured the "coupling between the phase of alpha oscillations and the amplitude of gamma oscillations" and suggested that "failure to entrain neuronal assemblies fully both within and across cortical regions may be characteristic of ASD." We were training exactly this coupling (phase of alpha and amplitude of gamma) during the time we were teaching self-regulation of DMN connectivity. Your attention to issues of neuroplasticity and neuroprotection, attachment, etc., have all played essential roles in management. [3] Washington SD, et al (2013) - Dysmaturation of the Default Mode Network in Autism. Human Brain Mapping. [4] Khan S, et al (2013) - Local and long-range functional connectivity is reduced in concert in autism spectrum disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 19;110(8):3107-12. Cross-Frequency Coupling and TAG Sync: It was exiting to read in Jirsa's [5] recent article "Cross-frequency coupling in real and virtual brain networks" that some of our findings, such as delta-alpha cross-frequency coupling between left anterior and right posterior are described. This article is an excellent introduction to CFC and its many potential applications in neurofeedback. It is best read with Breakspear 2005 [6], which gives a theoretical base for explaining how coupling theta and SMR frequencies in neurofeedback led to infra-low frequency changes in the BOLD default mode network operations [7]. Lee et al recently correlated increased right parasaggital CFC (delta, theta and gamma) with reduced risk taking and OCD [8]. Arns points out cross-frequency coupling between diurnal phase of melatonin cycle and sleep cycle, slow cortical potentials, and EEG spindling [9]. [5] Jirsa V, et al (2013) - Cross-frequency coupling in real and virtual brain networks. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 03 July. [6] Breakspear M, et al (2005) - Dynamics of a neural system with a multiscale architecture, Philosophical Trans Royal Soc Britain 360, 1051-1074 [7] Russell-Chapin L, et al (2013) - The effects of neurofeedback in the default mode network : Pilot study results of medicated children with ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 17:35-42. FREE FULL-TEXT. [8] Lee J, et al (2013) - Correlation of risk-taking propensity with cross-frequency phase–amplitude coupling in the resting EEG. Clinical Neurophysiology. [9] Arns M, et al (2013) - Neurofeedback in ADHD and insomnia - Vigilance stabilization through sleep spindles and circadian networks. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Frontal Midline Theta: FM theta training has been a component of this training since the first alpha-theta synchrony module in 2009. Want et al 2013 [10] show its ability to improve memory in the elderly and executive function in younger clients. [10] Wang J-R, et al (2013) - Neurofeedback training improves attention and working memory performance. Clinical Neurophysiology, in press, accepted 31 May 2013. Brain-Computer-Brain Interface / The synchronous hyperbrain network: A tenant of the TAG Sync model holds that neurofeedback involves a brain-computer-brain interface. This has some of the idea of Allan Schore’s that the right cortex of the mother functions as an accessory cortex of that of the infant. These life events, and attachment issues in general, may interfere later with “hyperbrain” networks between individuals. The EEG may be more comprehensively seen when understood that it represents fractal information flow over embedded small world networks. The recent article by Sanger, et al, examine synchronous EEG events in the coordinated goal of shared musical exploration. It is my belief that the model we use for training in neurofeedback should not be based solely on training away differences in the spontaneous resting electroencephalographs of clients and mathematically average subjects. The TAG model emphasizes the model of an optimal adaptive brain which generates insight. It appears that this is only possible for the human brain when its coarse, medium and fine features express a unitary evolutionary goal. Breakspear et al 2005 and Varela (2001) were strong influences on this model. [11] Sänger J, et al (2013) - Directionality in hyperbrain networks discriminates between leaders and followers in guitar duets. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Vol 7, Art 234, June. [12] Breakspear M, et al (2005) - Dynamics of a neural system with a multi-scale architecture. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, May 29:360(1457):1051-74. FREE FULL-TEXT. [13] Varela F (2001) - The brainweb - Phase Synchronization and large-scale integration. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol 2, April 2001, p 229 The Theoretical Interpretation of Electroencephalography by Gerald Ulrich, 2013 This long awaited book [14] will have a great impact on those who interpret EEG. With excellent EEG charts and several cascading spectral displays (such as we observe during neurofeedback) Ulrich shows the importance of several patterns of vigilance, subvigilance, and dissolution of the finely tuned EEG into several categories of dysmaturation. These state changes take place sometimes in the matter of seconds and are lost in the color brain maps which average the states over time and often ignore their existence in the raw EEG. Ulrich is able to provide a framework for the majority of findings in routine spontaneous resting state EEG. During neurofeedback these states are best seen on the cascading spectral display, where synchronized activity at one frequency can frequently be seen to split into two frequencies, or to alternate with activity in other frequencies. TAG Sync notes such patterns such as synchronized alpha being interrupted by periods of theta and beta activity and trains phase synchronization at the relevant frequencies in order to promote self-regulation. The ideal outcome is often the production of more frequent and larger phase resets accompanied by insight and behavioral change. [14] Ulrich G (2013) - The Theoretical Interpretation of Electroencephalography (EEG). BMED Press, Corpus Christi, Texas. TAG Sync screens available: The single and dual channel TAG Sync screens, designs and manuals are now available at http://www.mindsupplies.com. Best wishes to everyone, Douglas Dailey
Aug 28, 2013 Lucid Near Death Experiences and Neurofeedback Fronto-Parietal Networks in TAG Sync Training Dysmaturation of the Default Mode Network in Autism Cross-Frequency Coupling and TAG Sync Frontal Midline Theta Neurofeedback Brain-Computer-Brain Interface / The Synchronous Hyperbrain Network The Theoretical Interpretation of Electroencephalography by Gerald Ulrich, MD, 2013 TAG Sync screens and manuals now available at mindsupplies.com.
T
Blog Archives
Blog
Copyright © 2013, 2015 by Douglas Dailey  Last Modified: Oct 19, 2015
“Damn it, Jim, I’m a doctor... not a statistician!” - Bones, Starship Enterprise
Blog Archives
For our newcomers I want to remind them that here we are discussing a particular model that may explain or suggest certain neurofeedback phenomena. In most cases the suggested protocols involve training cross-frequency coupling (e.g., theta alpha and gamma) in the EEG in order to augment phase resets, maturation of connectivity, self regulation, tranquility and insight. Some interesting recent studies support the model (described elsewhere). Near-death experiences:  As described elsewhere, part of my model involves emulating the EEG pattern found in advanced meditators when they are in a state of fully awake non- narrative awareness. According to this model, which draws on Buddhist psychology,  this intermediate EEG state between two thoughts should also characterize near death experiences . On Aug 14, 2013 in Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, Borjigin et al describe near death experiences (NDEs) [1]: "By presenting evidence of highly organized brain activity and neurophysiologic features consistent with conscious processing at near- death, we now provide a scientific framework to begin to explain the highly lucid and greater-than-real mental experiences reported by near- death survivors." That "organized brain activity" at death was shown to be primarily anterior to posterior theta-alpha-gamma synchrony at approximately the bands used in TAG sync training. Perhaps either new, incipient, or forgotten NDEs experiences play a role in some growing pains experienced during neurofeedback. [1] Borjigin J, et al (2013) - Surge of neurophysiological coherence and connectivity in the dying brain. Proc Nat Acad Sci, Aug 14, 2013.  Fronto-Parietal Networks in TAG Sync training: Since 2010 TAG Sync training has focused on the midline (Fpz, Fz, Pz & Oz) and the right and left fronto-parietal networks. Cole et al 2013 [2] explain the incredible versatility of the FPNs and describe their activation in novel and complex tasks. This type of task activation has not been incorporated into EEG databases, so it may need to be assessed during neurofeedback as the salience networks feedback information on the outcome of the FPN attempts to solve novel problems of state regulation. [2] Cole MW, et al (2013) - Multi-task connectivity reveals flexible hubs for adaptive task control. Nature Neuroscience (In Press) Dysmaturation of the default mode network in autism: Washington et al earlier this year in Human Brain Mapping [3] described autism as a "dysmaturation of the default mode network", and stated "the window for effectively treating ASD could be wider than previously thought." Children who develop typically (TD) show one synchronized DMN component. In ASD there are three poorly connected network components. If you look at figure 2 in Washington you will see that the regions of the brain he found under-connected due to "dysmaturation" are associated with all of the electrode locations we used in the early autism treatments in 2010. We focused on theta, alpha and gamma timing (synchrony). Earlier this year Khan in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [4] measured the "coupling between the phase of alpha oscillations and the amplitude of gamma oscillations" and suggested that "failure to entrain neuronal assemblies fully both within and across cortical regions may be characteristic of ASD." We were training exactly this coupling (phase of alpha and amplitude of gamma) during the time we were teaching self-regulation of DMN connectivity. Your attention to issues of neuroplasticity and neuroprotection, attachment, etc., have all played essential roles in management. [3] Washington SD, et al (2013) - Dysmaturation of the Default Mode Network in Autism. Human Brain Mapping. [4] Khan S, et al (2013) - Local and long-range functional connectivity is reduced in concert in autism spectrum disorders. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 19;110(8):3107-12. Cross-Frequency Coupling and TAG Sync: It was exiting to read in Jirsa's [5] recent article "Cross-frequency coupling in real and virtual brain networks" that some of our findings, such as delta-alpha cross- frequency coupling between left anterior and right posterior are described. This article is an excellent introduction to CFC and its many potential applications in neurofeedback. It is best read with Breakspear 2005 [6], which gives a theoretical base for explaining how coupling theta and SMR frequencies in neurofeedback led to infra-low frequency changes in the BOLD default mode network operations [7]. Lee et al recently correlated increased right parasaggital CFC (delta, theta and gamma) with reduced risk taking and OCD [8]. Arns points out cross-frequency coupling between diurnal phase of melatonin cycle and sleep cycle, slow cortical potentials, and EEG spindling [9]. [5] Jirsa V, et al (2013) - Cross-frequency coupling in real and virtual brain networks. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, 03 July. [6] Breakspear M, et al (2005) - Dynamics of a neural system with a multiscale architecture, Philosophical Trans Royal Soc Britain 360, 1051- 1074 [7] Russell-Chapin L, et al (2013) - The effects of neurofeedback in the default mode network : Pilot study results of medicated children with ADHD. Journal of Neurotherapy, 17:35-42. FREE FULL-TEXT. [8] Lee J, et al (2013) - Correlation of risk-taking propensity with cross- frequency phase–amplitude coupling in the resting EEG. Clinical Neurophysiology. [9] Arns M, et al (2013) - Neurofeedback in ADHD and insomnia - Vigilance stabilization through sleep spindles and circadian networks. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. Frontal Midline Theta: FM theta training has been a component of this training since the first alpha-theta synchrony module in 2009. Want et al 2013 [10] show its ability to improve memory in the elderly and executive function in younger clients. [10] Wang J-R, et al (2013) - Neurofeedback training improves attention and working memory performance. Clinical Neurophysiology, in press, accepted 31 May 2013. Brain-Computer-Brain Interface / The synchronous hyperbrain network: A tenant of the TAG Sync model holds that neurofeedback involves a brain- computer-brain interface. This has some of the idea of Allan Schore’s that the right cortex of the mother functions as an accessory cortex of that of the infant. These life events, and attachment issues in general, may interfere later with “hyperbrain” networks between individuals. The EEG may be more comprehensively seen when understood that it represents fractal information flow over embedded small world networks. The recent article by Sanger, et al, examine synchronous EEG events in the coordinated goal of shared musical exploration. It is my belief that the model we use for training in neurofeedback should not be based solely on training away differences in the spontaneous resting electroencephalographs of clients and mathematically average subjects. The TAG model emphasizes the model of an optimal adaptive brain which generates insight. It appears that this is only possible for the human brain when its coarse, medium and fine features express a unitary evolutionary goal. Breakspear et al 2005 and Varela (2001) were strong influences on this model. [11] Sänger J, et al (2013) - Directionality in hyperbrain networks discriminates between leaders and followers in guitar duets. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, Vol 7, Art 234, June. [12] Breakspear M, et al (2005) - Dynamics of a neural system with a multi- scale architecture. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci, May 29:360(1457):1051-74. FREE FULL-TEXT. [13] Varela F (2001) - The brainweb - Phase Synchronization and large- scale integration. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, Vol 2, April 2001, p 229 The Theoretical Interpretation of Electroencephalography by Gerald Ulrich, 2013 This long awaited book [14] will have a great impact on those who interpret EEG. With excellent EEG charts and several cascading spectral displays (such as we observe during neurofeedback) Ulrich shows the importance of several patterns of vigilance, subvigilance, and dissolution of the finely tuned EEG into several categories of dysmaturation. These state changes take place sometimes in the matter of seconds and are lost in the color brain maps which average the states over time and often ignore their existence in the raw EEG. Ulrich is able to provide a framework for the majority of findings in routine spontaneous resting state EEG. During neurofeedback these states are best seen on the cascading spectral display, where synchronized activity at one frequency can frequently be seen to split into two frequencies, or to alternate with activity in other frequencies. TAG Sync notes such patterns such as synchronized alpha being interrupted by periods of theta and beta activity and trains phase synchronization at the relevant frequencies in order to promote self-regulation. The ideal outcome is often the production of more frequent and larger phase resets accompanied by insight and behavioral change. [14] Ulrich G (2013) - The Theoretical Interpretation of Electroencephalography (EEG). BMED Press, Corpus Christi, Texas. TAG Sync screens available: The single and dual channel TAG Sync screens, designs and manuals are now available at http://www.mindsupplies.com. Best wishes to everyone, Douglas Dailey
Aug 28, 2013 Lucid Near Death Experiences and Neurofeedback Fronto-Parietal Networks in TAG Sync Training Dysmaturation of the Default Mode Network in Autism Cross-Frequency Coupling and TAG Sync Frontal Midline Theta Neurofeedback Brain-Computer-Brain Interface / The Synchronous Hyperbrain Network The Theoretical Interpretation of Electroencephalography by Gerald Ulrich, MD, 2013 TAG Sync screens and manuals now available at mindsupplies.com.
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